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By: Dr. Mohammad Salman Murtuza, Sports Editor-ICN Sports

The warm-up should involve the muscles used in the training or competition, be similar to the movements and activities that will be engaged, and progress from lower to higher intensity , it is also suggested that a specific warm up routine can improve the state of physical and mental readiness for muscular performance, hence improving subsequent performance and possibly reducing soreness.

High levels of hip and shoulder flexibility are needed in combat sports as many techniques take these joints to end of the range with combined trunk rotation, and this is why we have selected the warm-up activates below, to prepare and mobilize these joints before training.

The athlete begins with lunging trunk rotations and progressively moves through the functional warm up routine. Table and pictures were taken from flexibility Our Proposed flexibility routine incorporates static, dynamic and ballistic stretching exercises to cater for the wide variety of postures and techniques that occur within both training and competitions for the mixed martial arts competitor. We have included some stretches that take place in very functionally similar positions (such as the guard stretches and lateral base stretch) so as we develop increased range of motion in these important positions were the fighter could be at an advantage if he has good range of motion.

The warm-up is a very simple concept. In athletics, the athlete does whatever is needed to be 100% physically and mentally prepared for a training session or competition. Individuals have different needs requiring different routines, which is acceptable, but if the warm-up is well planned and executed it will result in improved performance. A lot has changed since the earliest days of athletics, when the concept of warming up was being developed, and even the more recent times of the classic warm-up, consisting of a few laps of jogging followed by plenty of static stretching.

Currently, coaches and sport scientists put a lot of thought into the warm-up process in an effort to help athletes achieve maximum performance and an edge over other competitors. In this article the development of the thought behind warming up will be covered as well as why a warm-up is important.

Some research scholars and physical educators are divided on the issue of warming-up. Some of them hold the opinion that warming-up before performing an activity is not essential. They advocate that warming-up before an activity is unless and further aver that it is merely wastage of energy as well as time.

A proper warm up has a number of very important key elements. These elements, or parts, should all work together to minimize the likelihood of sports injury from physical activity. Why Warm Up? Warming up prior to any physical activity does a number of beneficial things, but the main purpose of the warm up is to prepare the body and mind for strenuous activity. One of the ways it achieves this is by increasing the body’s core temperature, while also increasing the body’s muscle temperature.

By increasing muscle temperature you’re helping to make the muscles loose, supple and pliable. An effective warm up also has the effect of increasing both your heart rate and your respiratory rate. This increases blood flow, which in turn increases the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles. All this helps to prepare the muscles, tendons and joints for more strenuous activity. Keeping in mind the aims or goals of an effective warm up, we can then go on to look at how the warm up should be structured.

Here are some examples of warm-up activities:

To warm up for a brisk walk, walk slowly for five to 10 minutes.

To warm up for a run, walk briskly for five to 10 minutes.

To warm up for swimming, swim slowly at first and then pick up the tempo as you’re able.

Warming-up is usually performed to do an activity in must refined and efficient way. It is a short term activity and it is done prior to any competition or training session in camps.it is so essential and help the sportsperson to prepare physically, mentally, physiologically and psychologically for any types of sports programs, training schedule, special training camps and competition and tournaments. In fact, it is necessary to prepare those muscles, which are involving in that specific or specialized activity, sports and games, competition and tournaments.

The warm-up should gently prepare the body for exercises by gradually increasing the heart rate and circulation; this will loosen the joints and increase blood flow to the muscles. Stretching the muscles prepares them for physical activity and prevents injuries. The warm-up is also a good opportunity for an individual to prepare themselves mentally for the game ahead and for a team to work together prior to the start of the game. Warm-ups can also be used to practice skills and team drills. When we do proper warming-up done prior any activity our body immune system working properly and smoothly then our body system and mechanism and all muscles become ready to respond efficiently and effectively. These types of preparation before any types of activity, training camps, competition and tournaments are called warming-up.

 Types of warming-up: There are following types of warming-up:

  • Passive warming-up;   B. Active warming-up.
  • Passive warming-up: The aim of these types of warming-up is to increase the body temperature without performing any physical activity. In passive warming-up the body temperature is increased usually by external means such as by wearing heavy uniform and as well as massage, hot-water, steam, sunlight, and hot drinks etc. Warming-up is most beneficial for sportsperson because there is no expenditure of energy in the process of warming-up.

Passive warm up group received moist heat as intervention. Moist heat packs were applied over hamstrings, quadriceps, and gastro-soleus complex and over the gluteus muscles at the same time for a period of 20 minutes. The subjects rested in the prone position during the application. Subjects were asked not to sleep and were asked from time to time about the intensity of heat. Following passive warm up, self-stretching of the lower limb muscles was done by the subject. Hamstrings, quadriceps, gastro-soleus and gluteus muscles were stretched.

Active warming-up:  The main aim of these types of warming-up, a sportsperson doing so many activities related their skills of sports and games. These activities increase his working efficiency and stamina. Sportspersons body muscles totally toned up and flexible mode and temperature of body increases up to required level and balanced way.

Active warm up session included exercises as the intervention. It started with five minutes of cycling on static cycle at 40 rpm followed by five leg presses with half the body weight, five squat jumps, five jump squats, five heel raises and one minute BOSU® ball balancing exercise with eyes closed and externally given perturbations. Stretching followed after active warm up exercises as explained earlier. Active warming-up also dived two types:

  • General warming-up;             b) Specific warming-up;
  • General warming-up:

It is usually performed in all types of activities prior minor to major in different level such as elementary school, middle school, high school, senior secondary school, colleges and universities for students. It is also performing by childhood, adolescent stage and adulthood sportsperson. These types’ warming-up always depends upon the nature of work to be performed. The type of warming-up includes jogging, slow running, little jumping, normal stretching, calisthenics, striding, wind sprints and do some other recreational general exercises. The aim of the general warm up is simply to elevate the heart rate and respiratory rate. This in turn increases the blood flow and helps with the transportation of oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles. This also helps to increase the muscle temperature, allowing for a more effective static stretch. Which bring us to part two?

  • Specific warming-up:

The specific warm up will be used to further prepare your body for a set. Although not required to be added to a routine they are highly recommended. In this type of warming-up, exercises are done with implements specific exercises are performed which have direct relationship with activity and particular sports and competitions to be done. In specific warming-up exercises are performed after the activities of general warming-up. Specific warming-up always depends a different type of activity to activity which means games to game. This warming-up improves the coordinative abilities.  Some examples for specific warming-up these are:

  • A sprinter may take few starts and run for short distance before the competition.
  • A Basketball player may practice for lay-up shots or free throws before competition.

Methods of warming-up:- There are following methods;

  • General method: general method of warming-up which are generally used:Jogging, simple exercises, striding, stretching exercises, wind sprints.
  • Warming-up through warm water;
  • Warming-up through hot-drinks;
  • Warming-up through sunbathe;
  • Warming-up through steam bathe;
  • Warming-up through massage.

Advantages of warming-up:-

The eminent educationists and exercise physiologists are the opinion that warming-up is essential for attaining better performance in the field of sports and games. Some important advantages of warming-up point out below:-

  • Increase in balanced way sportsperson body temperature;
  • Improved the range of motion around a joint is increased.
  • Increases metabolic rate;
  • Increases the speed of muscles;
  • Increases flexibility;
  • Increase blood flow and metabolism;
  • Decreases the viscosity of muscles;
  • Decreases the chance of injury;
  • Decreases the resistance in muscle capillaries;
  • Decreases reaction time;
  • Decreases the fatigue level;
  • Optimized ability to perform;
  • Reduces the anxiety and mental tension;
  • Reduces the blood lactic acids;
  • Increases agility;
  • Increases explosive power;
  • Increases strength;
  • Increases endurance;
  • Increases good heart rate;
  • Increases specific efficiency;
  • Increases working capacity;
  • Increases the speed of nerve impulse;
  • Increases the speed of transfer of oxygen and fuel to tissues;
  • Improves physical fitness;
  • Improves specific skills;
  • Improves neuromuscular coordination;
  • Improves the level of performance;
  • Improves digestive system in proper way;
  • Improves second wind more readily;
  • Improves psychological level;
  • It reduces tension and nervousness;
  • Increased muscle elasticity while the resistance of the connective tissue is decreased;
  • Reduced muscle tension;
  • Willingness to exercise is intensified;
  • The body adapts to harsh weather conditions more easily;
  • The transmission of nerve impulses is connective tissues is decreased;
  • Improves the all body organ in proper way;
  • General and specific up results in better skill and team performance.

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