By: Dr. Mohammad Salman Murtuza, Sports Editor-ICN Group
Warming-up is usually performed to do an activity in must refined and efficient way. It is a short term activity and it is done prior to any competition or training session in camps.it is so essential and help the sportsperson to prepare physically, mentally, physiologically and psychologically for any types of sports programs, training schedule, special training camps and competition and tournaments. In fact, it is necessary to prepare those muscles, which are involving in that specific or specialized activity, sports and games, competition and tournaments.
The warm-up should gently prepare the body for exercises by gradually increasing the heart rate and circulation; this will loosen the joints and increase blood flow to the muscles. Stretching the muscles prepares them for physical activity and prevents injuries. The warm-up is also a good opportunity for an individual to prepare themselves mentally for the game ahead and for a team to work together prior to the start of the game. Warm-ups can also be used to practice skills and team drills. When we do proper warming-up done prior any activity our body immune system working properly and smoothly then our body system and mechanism and all muscles become ready to respond efficiently and effectively. These types of preparation before any types of activity, training camps, competition and tournaments are called warming-up.
Types of warming-up: There are following types of warming-up:
- Passive warming-up; B. Active warming-up.
- Passive warming-up: The aim of these types of warming-up is to increase the body temperature without performing any physical activity. In passive warming-up the body temperature is increased usually by external means such as by wearing heavy uniform and as well as massage, hot-water, steam, sunlight, and hot drinks etc. Warming-up is most beneficial for sportsperson because there is no expenditure of energy in the process of warming-up.
Passive warm up group received moist heat as intervention. Moist heat packs were applied over hamstrings, quadriceps, and gastro-soleus complex and over the gluteus muscles at the same time for a period of 20 minutes. The subjects rested in the prone position during the application. Subjects were asked not to sleep and were asked from time to time about the intensity of heat. Following passive warm up, self-stretching of the lower limb muscles was done by the subject. Hamstrings, quadriceps, gastro-soleus and gluteus muscles were stretched.
Active warming-up: The main aim of these types of warming-up, a sportsperson doing so many activities related their skills of sports and games. These activities increase his working efficiency and stamina. Sportspersons body muscles totally toned up and flexible mode and temperature of body increases up to required level and balanced way.
Active warm up session included exercises as the intervention. It started with five minutes of cycling on static cycle at 40 rpm followed by five leg presses with half the body weight, five squat jumps, five jump squats, five heel raises and one minute BOSU® ball balancing exercise with eyes closed and externally given perturbations. Stretching followed after active warm up exercises as explained earlier. Active warming-up also dived two types:
- General warming-up; b) Specific warming-up;
- General warming-up:
It is usually performed in all types of activities prior minor to major in different level such as elementary school, middle school, high school, senior secondary school, colleges and universities for students. It is also performing by childhood, adolescent stage and adulthood sportsperson. These types’ warming-up always depends upon the nature of work to be performed. The type of warming-up includes jogging, slow running, little jumping, normal stretching, calisthenics, striding, wind sprints and do some other recreational general exercises. The aim of the general warm up is simply to elevate the heart rate and respiratory rate. This in turn increases the blood flow and helps with the transportation of oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles. This also helps to increase the muscle temperature, allowing for a more effective static stretch. Which bring us to part two?
- Specific warming-up:
The specific warm up will be used to further prepare your body for a set. Although not required to be added to a routine they are highly recommended. In this type of warming-up, exercises are done with implements specific exercises are performed which have direct relationship with activity and particular sports and competitions to be done. In specific warming-up exercises are performed after the activities of general warming-up. Specific warming-up always depends a different type of activity to activity which means games to game. This warming-up improves the coordinative abilities. Some examples for specific warming-up these are:
- A sprinter may take few starts and run for short distance before the competition.
- A Basketball player may practice for lay-up shots or free throws before competition.
Methods of warming-up:- There are following methods;
- General method: general method of warming-up which are generally used:Jogging, simple exercises, striding, stretching exercises, wind sprints.
- Warming-up through warm water;
- Warming-up through hot-drinks;
- Warming-up through sunbathe;
- Warming-up through steam bathe;
- Warming-up through massage.
Advantages of warming-up:-
The eminent educationists and exercise physiologists are the opinion that warming-up is essential for attaining better performance in the field of sports and games. Some important advantages of warming-up point out below:-
- Increase in balanced way sportsperson body temperature;
- Improved the range of motion around a joint is increased.
- Increases metabolic rate;
- Increases the speed of muscles;
- Increases flexibility;
- Increase blood flow and metabolism;
- Decreases the viscosity of muscles;
- Decreases the chance of injury;
- Decreases the resistance in muscle capillaries;
- Decreases reaction time;
- Decreases the fatigue level;
- Optimized ability to perform;
- Reduces the anxiety and mental tension;
- Reduces the blood lactic acids;
- Increases agility;
- Increases explosive power;
- Increases strength;
- Increases endurance;
- Increases good heart rate;
- Increases specific efficiency;
- Increases working capacity;
- Increases the speed of nerve impulse;
- Increases the speed of transfer of oxygen and fuel to tissues;
- Improves physical fitness;
- Improves specific skills;
- Improves neuromuscular coordination;
- Improves the level of performance;
- Improves digestive system in proper way;
- Improves second wind more readily;
- Improves psychological level;
- It reduces tension and nervousness;
- Increased muscle elasticity while the resistance of the connective tissue is decreased;
- Reduced muscle tension;
- Willingness to exercise is intensified;
- The body adapts to harsh weather conditions more easily;
- The transmission of nerve impulses is connective tissues is decreased;
- Improves the all body organ in proper way;
- General and specific up results in better skill and team performance.