By: Dr. Abhishek Pandey, Asstt. Editor-ICN
LUCKNOW: India emerged as an independent nation on 15th August 1947, after a long struggle against the British colonial yoke. The country is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government. Though India has shown tremendous growth in all spheres of national life in the years after independence, yet many problems plague the everyday social life; the problems, many a time, are interrelated. Poverty, Population, Pollution, Illiteracy, Corruption, Inequality, Gender discrimination, Terrorism, Communalism, Lack of Infrastructure, Unemployment, Regionalism, Casteism, Alcoholism, Drugs Abuse, Violence against Women are the major ones.
Unemployment means under-utilization or non-utilization of available man-power. Unemployment refers to the state of being unemployed or not having a job i.e. joblessness. A person is said to be unemployed if he or she is looking for work or is willing to work at the prevailing wage but is unable to find the job. India, with a vast population of over 2 billion individuals, is facing the biggest problem of the century in the form of unemployment of worthy and productive citizens. Our country is set to be progressing by leaps and bounds in the matter of economy but this progress is low sided that the net results is the sharp increase in the number of unemployed. Population of our country India is increasing day by day which is one of the main reason for unemployment.
Unemployment is a serious problem that our government faces. Our leaders are trying their utmost best to solve it wisely. If it is not solved sooner, a social revolution may take place to have its solution. The main cause of unemployment is the rapid growth of populations. Since independence the population of India has increased by three times its total. When people multiply, there raises the problems of unemployment and it becomes difficult for the government to provide employment to a sufficient number of people. As a matter of principle it becomes the duty of the government to provide employment to all as far as possible and we are blessed that our government is taking keen interest to solve this serious problem of today. As the growth of populations is going unchecked, jobs and services in a given field commonly remain insufficient. When our youths do not find employment despite their best efforts, they get irritated and feel disappointed.
There are three types of unemployment, i.e. labor class who are not educated, educated persons without possessing any technical qualifications and technical persons such as engineers and technical. Let us implore them one by one.
In the case of labor class there are lakhs of people who earn their livelihood daily and gather themselves in some specific place just to find daily employment somewhere. They are not disappointed to a great extends. Sometimes they find employment and sometimes they return to their houses without finding employment. They are habituated to adjust themselves with the circumstance, though they also become irritated and disappointed sometimes when problems of food and clothing arise before them. This is the case with general labor of the cities. As regards the agriculture labor of the village, they’re also not disappointed to a great extent as they find seasonal employment very easily in the farms and fields of big farmers.
Since the number of educated persons is increasing day by day, we are not in a position to afford a venue of work for this growing number. As such our educated persons are very much disappointed when they wander dark roads in search of employment. As they do not possess any technical and practical training, they only try to find clerical jobs which are not sufficient according to the increasing number of educated persons. It has become a very ticklish problem which is being faced by our government.
As regards educated persons, possessing technical qualifications, they tend to be frustrated when they do not find employment despite their best qualifications. There can be in no two opinions that they find their employment very easily on the merits of their technical qualifications, but according to the increasing number of such educated persons also become victims of unemployment. Education is a very good thing and one must be educated but the irony of it is that when we offer education to young people we are not in a position to offer jobs to them. This is the main cause of disappointment among our educated youths.
Causes of unemployment are so many and varied. It can be social, economic and personal causes.
- 1. Personal causes: It may be due to lack of experience, vocational unfitness and illness and disability.
- 2. Social causes: – It can be due to degrading social status of the individual, rapid growth in education, and geographical immobility. Sometimes, it so happens that in one region there is surplus labour and in another there is inadequate labour. The people refuse to move from one region to other. This is called geographical immobility.
- 3. Economic causes:- Economic causes of unemployment are so many. It can be the traditional method of cultivation, disappearance of traditional occupation, lack of occupational mobility, dis-organisation of agriculture, poverty, lack of adequate employment policy etc.
Major Consequences of Unemployment:
Unemployment affects the society as a whole. First of all it affects an individual, then it affects the family and then the society. So the consequences of unemployment lie on three aspects:
- Personal dis-organisation.
- Family dis-organisation.
- Social dis-organisation.
- Personal dis-organisation:- Due to this, the unemployed person feels alienated and falls into cynicism. With heavy depression he may be Involved himself into criminal activities.
- Family disorganization:- In this, unemployment affects the unity of interests of family members. This creates imbalance and disorder within the family. Sometimes the wife of an unemployed person wants to take up a job but the idea may lead to family dis-organisation because of the traditional and conservative attitude of the husband. It may create family disturbances leading to family dis-organisation.
- Social dis-organisation:- It refers to the break down in the social structure. It creates anomic situation. Due to unemployment situation, the social relationships between members of a group are broken or dissolved.
Remedies of Unemployment:
- 1. Encouraging self-employment.
- 2. Drastic re-organisation of vocational courses.
- Identification of skills needed in the present day context.
The remedial measures for reducing unemployment must lay greater emphasis on:-
- Creation of opportunities for self-employment.
- 2. Augmentation of productivity and income levels of the working poor.
- Shift in emphasis from creation of relief type of employment to the building up of durable productive assets in the rural areas.
- 4. Instead of attempting to revert somewhat to protectionist policy and emphasizing on common minimum programme.
- Efforts should be made to check population explosion. Subdivision of land should be legally checked. More and more barren and unused land should be brought under cultivation so that more people are absorbed and employed.
The rural people should try to stand on their own foot and to start some work with self-help should be given financial help and assistance as well as necessary technical knowledge and other facilities. Poverty and unemployment are interlinked.The educated youth should change their mind also and they should think of self-employment, rather than searching jobs and services hither and thither wasting their energy. In this way a very serious problem of unemployment may be saved to a great extent.