DR PUJA DEWAN
MBBS, DGO, DNB, MRCOG(UK), FRCOG(UK), PhD DHA, DMLS, MNAMS, FIMS, FICMCH, FIMSA, FICOG, FRSH(UK)
Senior Consultant – Gynaecologist
Fertility (&IVF) Specialist
Founder and Director, Arcady Life, New Delhi
Email – firstname.lastname@example.org
DR POOJA SINGH
Maharaja Surajmal Institute
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University
About Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the breast. Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Breast cancer cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an X-ray or felt as a lump. Breast cancer occurs almost entirely in women. October has been declared as the Breast Cancer Awareness Month.
It’s important to understand that most breast lumps are harmless and not cancer. Non-cancerous breast tumors are abnormal growths, but they do not spread outside of the breast. They are not life threatening, but some types of benign breast lumps can increase a woman’s risk of getting breast cancer. Any breast lump or change needs to be checked by a health care professional to determine if it is harmless or cancerous and if it might affect your future cancer risk.
Beginning of Breast Cancer
Breast cancers can start from different parts of the breast.
- Most breast cancers begin in the ducts that carry milk to the nipple (ductal cancers)
- Some start in the glands that make breast milk (lobular cancers)
- A small number of cancers start in other tissues in the breast.
Measures To Take Care of For Avoiding Breast Cancer
- Eat A Healthy Diet
Eating a well balanced diet of vegetables, good quality meats and proteins, healthy fats, and nutrient-dense foods is essential to being vital and healthy.
- Move your Body
Research suggests that increased physical activity, reduces overall breast-cancer risk by about 10 to 30 percent.
- Don’t Smoke
Smoking cigarettes is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in women and is dangerous for your body.
- Breastfeed Your Babies For as long as you can
Not only is breastfeeding good for your baby, it’s good for you as well. It is estimated that you reduce your risk by 4.1 per cent for every 12 months of breastfeeding. So, the longer you breast feed, the better it is for your breast health.
- Limit Alcohol Consumption
Alcohol use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. It is recommended to have no more than one drink per day.
- Practice Breast-Self Exams
It’s a great habit to get into to examine your breasts on a regular basis. Get to know your breasts. And that way if there any changes in your breast tissue, you will know.
Methods of Breast Cancer Screening
Breast cancer screening means checking a woman’s breasts for cancer before there are signs or symptoms of the disease.
- Self-breast examination
A breast self-exam is a check-up a woman does at home to look for changes or problems in the breast tissue. Many women feel that doing this is important to their health. Adult women of all ages are encouraged to perform breast self-exams at least once a month.
- Begin by lying on your back. It is easier to examine all breast tissue if you are lying down.
- Place your right hand behind your head. With the middle fingers of your left hand, gently yet firmly press down using small motions to examine the entire right breast.
- Next, sit or stand. Feel your armpit, because breast tissue goes into that area.
- Gently squeeze the nipple, checking for discharge. Repeat the process on the left breast.
- Next, stand in front of a mirror with your arms by your side.
- Look at your breasts directly and in the mirror. Look for changes in skin texture, such as dimpling, puckering, indentations, or skin that looks like an orange peel.
- Also note the shape and outline of each breast.
- Check to see if the nipple turns inward.
B External methods for Breast Cancer Screening
A mammogram is an X-ray of the breast. For many women, mammograms are the best way to find breast cancer early, when it is easier to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. Having regular mammograms can lower the risk of dying from breast cancer. At this time, a mammogram is the best way to find breast cancer for most women.
2.Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A breast MRI uses magnets and radio waves to take pictures of the breast. MRI is used along with mammograms to screen women who are at high risk for getting breast cancer. Because breast MRIs may appear abnormal even when there is no cancer, they are not used for women at average risk.
This is defined as ultrasonography of breast. Ultrasound imaging of the breast uses sound waves to produce pictures of the internal structures of the breast. It is primarily used to help diagnose breast lumps or other abnormalities your doctor may have found during a physical exam, mammogram or breast MRI. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive and does not use radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation.
Warning signs if someone develops breast cancer.
Different people have different symptoms of breast cancer. Some people do not have any signs or symptoms at all. Some common warning signs of breast cancer are described below: –
- New lump in the breast or underarm (armpit).
- Thickening or swelling of part of the breast.
- Irritation or dimpling of breast skin.
- Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast.
- Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area.
- Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood.
- Any change in the size or the shape of the breast.
- Pain in any area of the breast.
Risk Factors for developing breast cancer
- Getting older. The risk for breast cancer increases with age; most breast cancers are diagnosed after the age of 50 yrs.
- Genetic mutations. Inherited changes (mutations) to certain genes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2. Women who have inherited these genetic changes are at higher risk of breast and ovarian cancer.
- Reproductive history. Early menstrual periods before age 12 and starting menopause after age 55 expose women to hormones longer, raising their risk of getting breast cancer.
- Having dense breasts. Dense breasts have more connective tissue than fatty tissue, which can sometimes make it hard to see tumors on a mammogram. Women with dense breasts are more likely to get breast cancer.
- Personal history of breast cancer or certain non-cancerous breast diseases. Women who have had breast cancer are more likely to get breast cancer a second time. Some non-cancerous breast diseases such as atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ are associated with a higher risk of getting breast cancer.
- Family history of breast or ovarian cancer. A woman’s risk for breast cancer is higher if she has a mother, sister, or daughter (first-degree relative) or multiple family members on either her mother’s or father’s side of the family who have had breast or ovarian cancer. Having a first-degree male relative with breast cancer also raises a woman’s risk.
- Previous treatment using radiation therapy. Women who had radiation therapy to the chest or breasts before age 30 have a higher risk of getting breast cancer later in life.
Know Your Authors
Dr. Puja Dewan, is a Senior Consultant Gynaecologist, Fertility (&IVF) Specialist and specializing in Laparoscopic key hole surgery. She is the Founder and Director of Arcady Life, New Delhi. Formerly she was the Head- Infertility & IVF and Sr.Gynae-Consultant at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai; Max Healthcare (Pan NCR) & NOVA IVI Fertility Consultant- Apollo Hospital, Delhi & Noida. She is a fellow of The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists at London UK. She has an experience of more than 20 years and is in a deep knowhow of the current worldwide crisis and the psychological impact besides the physical impact of the disease. Apart from the that she is an acclaimed speaker in several women’s health awareness programs and scientific conferences. She is also a renowned singer and a musician trained in classical music. She has an extensive contribution towards devotional and spiritual music and has been part of several musical projects and collaborations with other renowned musicians. Dr. Dewan has been bestowed with several prestigious awards like Best Medical Practitioner, Best Infertility Specialist, Legends of India, Best Researcher Award and many more to name.
Dr. Pooja Singh, is working as an Assistant Professor at Maharaja Surajmal Institute, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi. She has an extensive experience of 15 years in both teaching and research. She has a major contribution in the research of various aspects of medical fields. She has authored more than two books both with national and international publications and has published more than 15 research papers in primarily International journals of repute and International/National conferences and seminars. She has attended various Faculty development program for enhancing her professional growth on regular basis. She has been working hard towards the overall development of the students as well as towards the development of society through her research in the dynamic field of medical services.